Part 1: Equity Derivatives - A Beginner's Guide

Money_Dictators Updated   
NSE:NIFTY   Nifty 50 Index
What are derivatives?
Basic interpretation: something which is based on another source.

A derivative is a contract or product whose value derives from the value of the base asset. The base asset is called the underlying asset.

i.e., Sugar prices will rise if sugarcane prices increase due to low production. It means sugarcane is the underlying asset of sugar because the value of sugar is associated with sugarcane.

There is a broad range of underlying assets:
Metals: lead, gold, silver, copper, zinc, nickel, tin, etc.

Energy: coal, natural gas, etc.

Agri commodities: corn, cotton, pulses, wheat, sugar, etc.

Financial assets: Stocks, bonds, forex, etc.

There are two types of derivatives:
1. Exchange-traded: A standardized derivative contract, listed and traded on an organized exchange.

2. Over-the-counter/off-exchange trading/pink sheet trading:
A derivative product in which counterparties buy or sell a contract or product at a negotiated price without exchange

Instruments of derivatives market:
There are four instruments in the derivatives market:

1. Forward:
Forward is a non-standard agreement or agreement between two parties that allows you to buy/sell the asset at the agreed price for a pre-decided date of the contract.

Forwards are negotiated between two pirates, so the terms and conditions of the contract are customized.

These are called over-the-counter(OTC).

2. Future:
Future contracts are similar to forwarding contracts, but the deal is made through an organized and regulated exchange rather than negotiated between two counterparties.
A futures contract is an exchange-traded forward contract.

3. Options:
A derivative contract that gives the right but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset at a stated strike price on or before a specified date.

Buyers of options- Pays the premium and buys the right
Sellers of options - Receives the premium with the obligation to buy/sell underlying assets.

4. Swap:
A swap is a derivative contract between two counterparties to exchange for the cash flows or liabilities from two different financial instruments.
It is an introduction article. I will cover all these topics in detail.
Swap helps participants manage risk associated with volatility risk interest rate, currency exchange rates, & commodity prices.

Index = Portfolio of securities
An Index shows how investors experience the economy. Is it progressing or not?

A Stock market index gathers data from a variety of companies of industries. The data forms an overall picture and helps investors compare market performance through past and current prices.

Financial indices represent the price movement of bonds, shares, Treasury Bills, etc.

Importance of Index:

1. An index is an indication of a specific sector or gross market.

2. It helps investors to pick the right stock

3. An index is a statistical indicator. It represents an overall change or part of a change in the economy.

4. In OTC & exchange-traded markets, It used as an underlying asset for derivatives trading

5. An index helps to measure for evaluation of portfolio performance.

6. Portfolio managers use indices as investment benchmarks.

7. Index illustrates investor sentiments.

Types of index:
There are four classifications for indices:

Equal Weighted Index:
Each company is given the same weightage in the composition of this index. Equal-weighted indexes are more diversified than market capitalization-weighted indexes. This index focuses on value investing.

Free-float index:
In finance, equity divides into different among various stakeholders like promoters, institutions, corporates, individuals, etc.
A tradable stake for trading is called a free-float share.

i.g, If XYZ company has issued 5 lakh shares with the face value of Rs 10, but of these, 2 lakh shares are owned by the promoter, then the free-float market capitalization is Rs 30 lakh.

Free-float market capitalization: Free-floating shares * Price of shares

Market capitalization-weighted index:
In this index, each stock is given weightage according to its market capitalization.
High market cap = High weightage
Low market cap = low weightage

Market Cap= Current market price * total number of outstanding shares

i. e, if XYZ company has 1,000,000 outstanding shares and a market price of 55 rs per share will have a market capitalization of 55,000,000.
Index: Nifty 50

Price Weighted Index:
High price = More weightage
Low price = Low weightage

Popular price-weighted index: Dow Jones industrial average & Nikkei 225

I will upload second part soon.
Thank you :)
I am a technical analyst, but these were my exam notes. I was preparing for SEBI's certification.
If you are also preparing for series 8, it will be helpful to you.
Check this out:
In my next post, I will discuss the business cycle. I tried to keep the content as short as possible, but the content is too much. After publishing, I will update that article. Thank you.
I am back with my work :)


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